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  1. Discuss with your counselor the influence that EIGHT of the following people or events had on the history of medicine:
William Harvey
Antonie van Leewenhoek
Edward Jenner
Florence Nightingale
Louis Pasteur
Gregor Mendel
Joseph Lister
Robert Koch
Daniel Hale Williams
Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen
Marie and Pierre Curie
Walter Reed
Karl Landsteiner
Alexander Fleming
Charles Richard Drew
(Helen Raussig
James Watson and Francis Crick
Jonas Salk
  1. Explain the Hippocratic Oath to your counselor, and compare to the original version to a more modern one. Discuss to whom those subscribing to the original version of the oath owe the greatest allegiance.
  2. Discuss the health-care provider-patient relationship with your counselor, and the importance of such a relationship in the delivery of quality care to the patient. Describe the role of confidentiality in this relationship.
  3. Do the following:
    a. Describe the roles the following people play in the delivery of health care in your state. (Note: Not all may exist in your state.)
Allopathic physician
Emergency medical technician
Licensed practical/vocational nurse
Medical assistant
Medical laboratory technologist
Nurse practitioner
Occupational therapist
Osteopathic physician
Physical therapist
Physician’s assistant
Radiologic technologist
Registered nurse
Respiratory therapist
  1. b. Describe the educational and licensing requirements for five of those in 4a --other than 4a(1)- - practicing health care in your state.
  2. a. Tell what is meant by the term "primary care" with regard to a medical specialty. Briefly describe the types of work done by physicians in the following "core" specialties:
    1. Internal medicine*
    2. Family practice*
    3. Obstetrics/gynecology*
    4. Pediatrics*
    5. Psychiatry
    6. Surgery
    b. Describe the additional educational requirements for these specialties.
  3. a. Briefly describe the types of work performed by physicians in FIVE of the following specialties or subspecialties:
    1. Allergy/immunology
    2. Anesthesiology
    3. Cardiovascular disease
    4. Colon and rectal surgery
    5. Dermatology
    6. Emergency Medicine
    7. Endocrinology and metabolism
    8. Gastroenterology
    9. Geriatric medicine
    10. Hematology/oncology
    11. Infectious disease
    12. Nephrology
    13. Neurological surgery
    14. Neurology
    15. Nuclear medicine
    16. Opthalmology
    17. Orthopedic surgery
    18. Otolaryngology/head and neck surgery
    19. Pathology
    20. Physical medicine and rehabilitation
    21. Plastic, reconstructive, and maxillofacial surgery.
    22. Preventive medicine
    23. Radiology
    24. Rheumatology
    25. Thoracic/cardiothoracic surgery
    26. Urology
    27. Vascular surgery
    b. Describe the additional educational requirements for the five specialties or subspecialties you chose in 6a.
  4. a. Visit a physician's office,** preferably one who delivers "primary care." (This may be that of your counselor.) Discuss the components of a medical history and physical examination (an official BSA health form may be used to guide this discussion), and become familiar with the instruments used.
    b. Describe the characteristics of a good diagnostic test to screen for disease (e.g. routine blood pressure measurement). Explain briefly why diagnostic tests are not perfect.
    c. Show how to take a blood pressure reading and a pulse reading.
  5. Do the following:
    a. Discuss the roles medical societies, the insurance industry, and the government play in influencing the practice of medicine in the United States.
    b. Briefly tell how your state monitors the quality of health care within its borders, and how it provides care to those who do not have health insurance.
  6. Compare and discuss with your counselor the health care delivery systems in the United States, Sweden, and China.
  7. 1 Serve as a volunteer at a health-related event or facility in your community (e.g. blood drive, "health fair", blood pressure screening, etc.) approved by your counselor.
* "Primary care" specialties
** If this cannot be arranged, demonstrate to your counselor that you understand the components of a medical history and physical, and discuss the instruments involved.

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