Advanced knots

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{{Otheruses|''See [[Knots]], [[Forty knots]], [[Sailing knots]], [[Fishing knots]], and [[Special knots]] for more knots.}}
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{{Knots Header}}{{TOCright}}
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[[Image:Nf knots.png|frame|right|Some knots: 1. [[rope splicing|Splice]] 2. [[Manrope knot|Manrope knot]] 3. [[Granny knot|Granny knot]] 4. [[Rosebud stopper knot|Rosebud stopper knot]](?) 5. [[Matthew Walker knot|Matthew Walker knot]] 6. [[Shroud knot|Shroud knot]] 7. [[Turks head knot|Turks head knot]] 8. [[Overhand knot|Overhand knot]], [[Figure-of-eight knot|Figure-of-eight knot]] 9. [[Reef knot|Reef knot]] or [[Square knot|Square knot]] 10. [[Two half hitches|Two half hitches]] (see [[round turn and two half hitches|round turn and two half hitches]])]]
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Note that Wikipedia has [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_knots hundreds of knots] and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knot huge amount of knot theory]. This page used to be nothing but a copy of that knot theory page. Other resources are listed below.
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A '''knot''' is a method for fastening or securing linear material such as [[rope]] by tying or interweaving. It may consist of a length of one or more segments of rope, string, [[webbing]], [[twine]], [[strap]] or even chain interwoven so as to create in the line the ability to bind to itself or to some other object - the "load". Knots have been the subject of interest both for their ancient origins, common use, and the mathematical implications of
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{{Clear}}
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[[knot theory|knot theory]].
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= Advanced Knots =
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==Components==
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{{include|Constrictor knot}}
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[[image:BightLoopElbow.jpg|frame|right|Knot components]]
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[[Image:Turn-roundturn-tworoundturns.jpg|right|thumb|A: Turn<br>B: Round turn<br>C: Two round turns]]
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;'''Bight'''
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{{main|Bight (knot)}}
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:The center part of a length of rope, string, or yarn as opposed to the ends.
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:*A '''"bight"''' is any curved section, slack part, or loop between the ends of a rope.
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:*The phrase '''"in the bight"''' implies a U-shaped section of rope is itself being used in making a knot. Many knots can be tied either with the end or ''in the bight''.
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; '''Bitter end'''
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:More a ropeworker's term than a knot term, the reference is to the end of a rope that is tied off, hence the expression "to the bitter end". A ''bitt'' is a metal block with a crosspin used for tying lines to, found on docks.
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;'''Loop''' :A full circle formed by passing the working end over itself. Note that the term 'loop' is also used to refer to a category of knots (see 'Categories' below).
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;'''Elbow''' :Two crossing points created by an extra twist in a loop.
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;'''Standing end'''
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:The end of the rope not involved in making the knot, often shown as unfinished.
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;'''Standing part'''
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:Section of line between knot and the standing end.
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;'''Turn'''
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{{main|Turn (knot)}}
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:*A '''turn''' or '''single turn''' is a single pass behind or through an object.
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:*A '''round turn''' is the complete encirclement of an object; requires two passes.
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:*'''Two round turns''' circles the object twice; requires three passes.
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;'''Working end'''
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:The active end of a line used in making the knot. May also be called the 'running end' or 'live end'.
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;'''Working part'''
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:Section of line between knot and the working end.
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==Categories==
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{{include|Monkey's fist}}
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The [[list of knots]] is extensive, but common properties allow for a useful system of categorization. For example, [[loop (knot)|loop]] knots share the attribute of having some kind of an anchor point constructed on the [[standing end]] (such as a loop or overhand knot) into which the working end is easily hitched to using a [[round turn]]. An example of this is the [[bowline]]. Constricting knots often rely on friction to cinch down tight on loose bundles; an example is the [[Miller's knot]]. Knots may belong to more than one category.
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;[[Bend knot|Bend]] :A knot uniting two lines (for knots joining two ends of the same line, see [[binding (knot)|binding knots]] or [[loop (knot)|loops]]). [[list of bend knots|List of bends]].
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{{include|Ocean plait}}
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;[[binding (knot)|Binding]] :A knot that restricts object(s) by making multiple winds. [[List of binding knots]].
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;[[Coil]] :Knots used to tie up lines for storage. [[List of coil knots]].
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;[[Decorative knot]] :A complex knot exhibiting repeating patterns often constructed around and enhancing an object. [[List of decorative knots]].
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;[[Hitch knot|Hitch]] :A knot tied to a post, cable, ring, or spar. [[List of hitch knots]].
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;[[Lashing knot|Lashing]] :A knot used to hold (usually) poles together. [[List of lashing knots]].
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;[[loop (knot)|Loop]] :A knot used to create a closed circle in a line. [[List of loop knots]].
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;[[Plait]] (or Braid):A number of lines interwoven in a simple regular pattern. [[List of plait knots]].
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;[[slip knot|Slip]] (or Running) :A knot tied with a hitch around one of its parts, contrasted. with a loop, which is closed with a bend. A slip knot can be closed, a loop remains the same size. [[List of slip knots]].
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;[[Seizing]] :A knot used to hold two lines or two parts of the same line together. [[List of seizing knots]].
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;[[Sennit]] :A number of lines interwoven in a complex pattern. [[List of sennit knots]].
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;[[Rope splicing|Splice]] :A knot formed by interweaving strands of rope rather than whole lines. More time consuming but usually stronger than simple knots. [[List of splices]].
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;[[stopper (knot)|Stopper]] :A knot tied to hold a line through a hole. [[List of stopper knots]].
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;[[Trick]] :A knot that is used as part of a magic trick, a joke, or a puzzle. [[List of trick knots]].
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;[[Knot#Whipping_and_Fusing|Whipping]] :A binding knot used to prevent another line from fraying.
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==Usage==
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{{include|Trucker's hitch}}
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There is a large variety of knots and each knot has specific properties and suitability for a [[Knot#Categories|range of tasks]]. Some knots are well-adapted to attach to particular objects such as another rope, [[cleat (nautical)|cleat]], ring, or stake. Other knots are made to bind or constrict around an object. Decorative knots usually bind to themselves to produce attractive patterns. Choosing the correct knot for the job at hand is one of the most fundamental aspects of using knots well.
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{{include|Turk's head}}
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===Learning===
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=See also=
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{{Knots by Use}}
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The number of books, websites, videos, and other resources available to those interested in learning about knots is a testament to the value they hold for humankind. While some people possess an innate ability to look at a diagram or photo and tie the illustrated knot, for others the initial stages of learning are best accomplished by being shown knot tying methods by a person who already knows them. Knot tying skills are often transmitted by [[sailor]]s, [[Scouting|scout]]s, [[climbing|climber]]s, [[caving|caver]]s, [[arborist]]s, [[Firefighter#Rescue|rescue professional]]s, [[fishermen]], and [[surgeons]]. After mastering a few basic knots, the diagrams and photos become easier to interpret and use to continue the learning process. As more knots are learned, patterns begin to become evident in their structure and methods of tying. The learning of knots rewards practice and patience.
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= Reference books on knots=
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*{{ABOK}} Clifford W. Ashley]], Doubleday, New York. ISBN 0-385-04025-3
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===Applications===
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Knots are essential in many industrial, occupational, recreational, and domestic settings. Even simple activities such as running a load from the hardware store to home can result in disaster if a clumsy twist in a cord passes for a knot. Truckers needing to tie down a load may use a [[trucker's hitch]], gaining [[mechanical advantage]]. Knots can save the [[spelunking|spelunker]] from foolishly becoming buried under millions of tons of rock. Whatever the activity, such as [[sailing]] on the water or [[climbing]] on a cliff-side rock, learning well-tested knots prior to some hazardous activity introduces a critical measure of safety. In addition to safety, appropriate knots can prevent the necessity of cutting lines.
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Knots can be applied in combination to produce complex objects such as [[lanyard]]s and [[Net (textile)|netting]]. In [[ropework]], the frayed end of a rope is held together by a type of knot called a [[Knot#Whipping_and_Fusing|whipping knot]]. Many types of [[textile]]s use knots to repair damage. [[Macrame]], one kind of textile, is generated exclusively through the use of knotting, instead of [[knitting|knits]], crochets, weaves or felting. Macrame can produce self-supporting three dimensional textile structures, as well as flat work, and is often used ornamentally or decoratively.
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==Properties==
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===Strength===
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Knots invariably weaken the rope they are made in. When knotted rope is strained to its breaking point, it almost always fails in or near the knot, unless it is defective or damaged elsewhere. The bending, crushing, and chafing forces that hold a knot in place also unevenly stress the rope fibers and ultimately lead to the reduction of strength. The exact mechanisms that cause the weakening and failure are complex and are the subject of continued study.
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The relative knot strength, also called '''knot efficiency''', is the breaking strength of a knotted rope as a proportion of the breaking strength of the rope without the knot. There are many difficulties in determining an overall numeric knot efficiency for a given knot. This is due to the many factors that can affect the results of a knot efficiency test: the type of [[fiber]], the [[Rope#Styles of rope construction|style of rope]], the size of rope, whether it is wet or dry, how the knot is dressed before loading, how rapidly the knot is loaded, whether the knot is repeatedly loaded, and so on. With those limitations noted, most common knots have an efficiency between 40% and 80%.
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While some [[Rope splicing|rope splices]] can retain nearly the full strength of the rope when forming loops and bends, conventional knots are much more practical in most situations. Thus the prudent knot user will always allow for a large [[Factor of safety|safety margin]] in the strength of rope chosen for a task due to the weakening effects of knots, aging, damage, shock loading, etc. In general, the '''safe working load''' is often specified as between 10% and 20% of the rated breaking strength of the rope being used.[http://www.boatsafe.com/marlinespike/safeload.htm] For safety of life applications many other factors come into play which are beyond the current scope of this article. Experienced practitioners should always be consulted before using ropes and knots when safety of life, limb, or property is involved.
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===Security===
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Even if the rope does not break, a knot may still fail to hold. A knot which holds firm under a variety of adverse conditions is said to be more secure than one that does not. The main ways knots fail to hold are:
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==== Slipping ====
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The tension from the load causes the rope to work back through the knot in the direction of the load. If this continues far enough, the working end will pass into the knot and the knot unravels and fails. This behavior can be worsened when the knot is repeatedly strained and let slack, dragged over rough terrain, or repeatedly impacted such as against a [[mast]] or [[flagpole]].
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Even with secure knots, some slippage may occur as the knot is first put under real tension. This can be dealt with by leaving plenty of rope at the working end outside of the knot and by dressing the knot cleanly and tightening it as fully as possible before loading. In some cases the use of a [[stopper (knot)|stopper knot]] or, even better, a [[backup knot]] can prevent the working end from passing through the knot, but it is generally better to use a more secure knot if one is observed to slip. In life critical uses backup knots are often added to already secure knots in order to maximize safety.
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==== Capsizing ====
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Capsizing (or spilling) a knot is changing its form, rearranging its parts, usually by pulling on specific ends in specific ways. Some knots when used in an inappropriate way tend to capsize easily or even spontaneously. Often the capsized form of the knot offers little resistance to slipping or unraveling. For an excellent example of a knot that capsizes dangerously, see the discussion of the [[Reef Knot#Misuse|reef knot used as a bend]].
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Sometimes a knot is intentionally capsized as a method of tying another knot, such as the [[Bowline#Tying|"lightning method"]] of tying a Bowline. Some knots, such as the [[Carrick Bend]], are generally tied in one form and then capsized to attain a stronger or more stable form.
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==== Sliding ====
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In knots that are meant to grip another object, failure can be defined as the knot moving relative to the object being gripped. While the knot itself does not fail, it ceases to perform the desired function. For example a simple [[Rolling hitch|Rolling Hitch]] tied around a railing and pulled parallel to the railing might hold to a certain tension and then start sliding. Sometimes this can be corrected by working-up the knot tighter before subjecting it to load but usually a knot with more wraps, or a different size or type of rope will need to be used.
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== Reference books on knots==
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*[[Clifford Ashley|Clifford W. Ashley]] [[The Ashley Book of Knots|''The Ashley Book of Knots'']]. Doubleday, New York. ISBN 0-385-04025-3
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*R.S. Lee. ''All The Knots You Need''. Algrove Publishing. ISBN 0-921335-47-4
*R.S. Lee. ''All The Knots You Need''. Algrove Publishing. ISBN 0-921335-47-4
*Raoul Graumont. ''Handbook of Knots''. Cornell Maritime Press/Tidewater Publishers. ISBN 0-87033-030-6
*Raoul Graumont. ''Handbook of Knots''. Cornell Maritime Press/Tidewater Publishers. ISBN 0-87033-030-6
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*J.C. Turner and P. van de Griend (ed.) (1996). ''History and Science of Knots''. World Scientific. ISBN 981-02-2469-9
*J.C. Turner and P. van de Griend (ed.) (1996). ''History and Science of Knots''. World Scientific. ISBN 981-02-2469-9
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==External links==
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=External links=
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*[[Media:All_lower_rank_knots.pdf|All lower rank knots]] [[Image:Pdficon small.gif]] (2MB PDF)
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{{Knot Links}}
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* [http://www.geocities.com/roo_two/clovehitch.html Notable knot Index] - shows quick method of tying
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* [[Media:Step-By-Step-Knots-11-Basic-Scout-Knots.pdf|Step-By-Step knots]] [[Image:Pdficon small.gif]]: 11 Basic knots fit on the front and back of one page.
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* [[Media:Six-Boy-Scout-Knots.pdf|Six Boy Scout knots]] [[Image:Pdficon small.gif]] by John Geffre
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* [http://www.layhands.com/Knots/Knots_KnotsIndex.htm knots Index]
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* [http://www.geocities.com/roo_two/knotindex.html The Notable knot Index]
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*[[Media:All_lower_rank_knots.pdf|All lower rank knots]] {{PDF}}
*[[Media:When_to_use_knots_lashings.pdf|When to use knots lashings]] [[Image:Pdficon small.gif]] (152K PDF)
*[[Media:When_to_use_knots_lashings.pdf|When to use knots lashings]] [[Image:Pdficon small.gif]] (152K PDF)
*[http://www.seascout.org/general_resources/download_area.html#img12 Sea Scout Knots]
*[http://www.seascout.org/general_resources/download_area.html#img12 Sea Scout Knots]
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*[http://www.animatedknots.com Animated knots] (Javascript)
*[http://www.animatedknots.com Animated knots] (Javascript)
*[http://www.layhands.com/Knots/Knots_KnotsIndex.htm Knots Index]
*[http://www.layhands.com/Knots/Knots_KnotsIndex.htm Knots Index]
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<!-- *[http://www.neropes.com/splice/knots.htm Common knots] Broken 4/10/07 -->
 
*[http://www.fishing-nc.com/fishing-knots.php Fishing knots]
*[http://www.fishing-nc.com/fishing-knots.php Fishing knots]
*[http://www.fieggen.com/shoelace/index.htm Ian's Shoelace Site]
*[http://www.fieggen.com/shoelace/index.htm Ian's Shoelace Site]
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[[Category:Knots]]
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[[Category: Advanced knots|*]]
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[[Category:Scoutcraft]]
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Current revision

Animated Knots show you how to tie Basic Knots, Fishing Knots, Sailing Knots, Climbing Knots, Forty Knots,
Special Knots, and Advanced Knots, for Wolf, Bear, Webelos, Tenderfoot, Second Class, and First Class.

Contents

Note that Wikipedia has hundreds of knots and huge amount of knot theory. This page used to be nothing but a copy of that knot theory page. Other resources are listed below.

Advanced Knots

Constrictor knot

Main article: Constrictor knot
Constrictor knot
Image:constrictorknot.jpg
Names Constrictor knot, Gunner's knot
Typical use
Caveat May be difficult to untie once tightened
Releasing
Category Binding knots
Group Advanced knots
Related Clove hitch
Animation of tying a Constrictor knot
Animation of tying a Constrictor knot

See The Ashley Book of Knots # 1188, p. 216.

The Constrictor Knot deserves to be much more widely known and used. It is an excellent quick temporary whipping for a fraying rope's end. It securely ties the neck of a sack or bag, and I have often used it to hold items together for gluing.
Grog


Required for


Instructions


Lesson Videos


Notes



Monkey's fist

Main article: Monkey's fist
Monkey's fist
Image:Monkeys Fist.jpg
Names Monkey's fist,
Typical use
Caveat
Releasing
Category knots
Group Advanced knots
Related
Animation of tying a Monkey's fist
Animation of tying a Monkey's fist


Required for


Instructions


Lesson Videos


Notes

See The Ashley Book of Knots # 2200 - 3, p. 354. Grog notes: "The Monkey's Fist is used as a decorative knot and has been recommended to weight the end of a heaving line."



Ocean plait

Main article: Ocean plait
Ocean plait
Image:Ocean_Plait_Natural.jpg
Names Ocean plait,
Typical use
Caveat
Releasing
Category knots
Group Advanced knots
Related
Animation of tying a Ocean plait
Animation of tying a Ocean plait


Required for


Instructions


Lesson Videos


Notes



Trucker's hitch

Main article: Trucker's hitch
Trucker's hitch
[[Image:]]
Names Trucker's hitch,
Typical use
Caveat
Releasing
Category knots
Group Advanced knots
Related
Animation of tying a Trucker's hitch
Animation of tying a Trucker's hitch


Required for


Instructions


Lesson Videos


Notes

See The Ashley Book of Knots # 2124, p. 344.Grog notes: "The Trucker's Hitch (Lorry Hitch, Haymaker's Hitch, Harvester's Hitch) has the distinctive feature of providing a three to one purchase when being tightened. The variety of names for this hitch is a tribute to its widespread use. It is a valuable knot - particularly for securing loads or tarpaulins."


Turk's head

Main article: Turk's head
Turk's head
Image:turkshead.gif
Names Turk's head,
Typical use
Caveat
Releasing
Category knots
Group Advanced knots
Related
Animation of tying a Turk's head
Animation of tying a Turk's head


Required for


Instructions


Lesson Videos


Notes

See The Ashley Book of Knots # 1303 - 5, p. 232. Grog notes: "The Turk's Head is widely used as a slide, or woggle, for scout's scarves."


See also

Knots by Use
Basic knots Overhand knot · Square knot · Granny knot · Two half-hitches · Taut-line hitch · Bowline · Sheet bend · Slip knot · Clove hitch · Timber hitch
Advanced knots Constrictor knot · Monkey's fist · Ocean plait · Trucker's hitch · Turk's head
Special knots Braiding · Carrick bend · Chain sinnet · Cow hitch · Double sheet bend · Sheep shank
Fishing knots Arbor backing knot · Barrel knot · Blood knot · Blood loop · Clinch knot · Fisherman's knot · Improved clinch knot · Nail knot · Needle knot · Palomar knot · Surgeon's loop · Turle knot
Sailing knots Bowline on a Bight · Cleat Hitch · Double Bowline · Figure Eight · Marline Hitch · Midshipman's Hitch · Rolling Hitch · Stevedores Knot
Climbing knots Alpine Butterfly knot · Double fisherman's knot (Grapevine) · Figure eight follow-through · Figure eight on a bight · Figure eight on bend · Figure eight knot · Prusik knot · Safety knot · Water knot
Forty knots


Reference books on knots

External links

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